The average U.S. city generates only about $21 per person from fines.

But some make far more. “Even seemingly colorblind policies, like a $90 traffic citation for speeding, can have outcomes that are very much not colorblind,” writes Akheil Singla of Arizona State University. His new study shows that cities with larger black populations tend to make far more from traffic citations, forfeitures and other minor fines.

Also today:

And today marks five years since The Conversation US launched from the basement of one of Boston University’s buildings. In that time, we’ve published nearly 10,000 articles by over 7,500 authors, reaching tens of millions of readers. We could not have accomplished all we have without our loyal readers, university partners, authors, republishers and funders. Thank you for your continued readership and support.

Top story

How much does your city make from traffic tickets and other fines? vchal/

Cities with more black residents rely more on traffic tickets and fines for revenue

Akheil Singla, Arizona State University

A study looked at fines in 93 California cities. Cities with more black residents and more disproportionately white police forces tended to rely the most on fines.

Economy + Business

Environment + Energy

Arts + Culture

Science + Technology

Politics + Society

Most read on site

Today’s chart

Forward this email to your friends
Ask them to sign up at