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Australian Government | Australian Renewable Energy Agency | ARENA
15 February 2023

Clean Machines: driving towards net zero

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Stepping on the H2 gas - powering clean vehicles in suburban Melbourne

Toyota Motor Corporation Australia have completed a trailblazing project that established one of Australia’s first green hydrogen production facilities along with a hydrogen refuelling station.

The facility currently services a small fleet of fuel cell passenger vehicles along with two forklifts, but the lessons learned can also be applied to larger commercial hydrogen vehicles.

The process of developing the project, along with the challenges and gained experience, have been documented in the final knowledge sharing report.

Image: Toyota’s Hydrogen facility at Altona consisting of the production and storage equipment in the fenced area, and the hydrogen dispenser refuelling unit on the left next to a Toyota Mirai Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle.

Read Toyota's Technical and Feasibility Study Report here 


Creating value from Vehicle to Grid

Australian National University (ANU) and ActewAGL have partnered to explore the full economic and grid benefits of vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services in Australia. The final reports from the project consider potential business models for a V2G provider sitting between electric vehicle fleets and the grid.

They also provide numerical modelling to estimate revenue coming from different sources including the provision of Frequency Controlled Ancillary Services.

Image: Dr Bjorn Sturmberg, research leader at the ANU Battery Storage and Grid Integration Program, with a Wallbox Quasar bidirectional charger. Image: Nissan video screenshot.

Read the Creating Value from V2G - Business Model Report 

Read the Modelling V2G simulation - a study of the economic and technical value proposition for V2G 


Hydrogen goes Ultra-Heavy

Ark Energy, a subsidiary of the world’s largest producer of zinc, lead and silver, has embarked on a project to demonstrate the production and use of green hydrogen. It involves the deployment of five of the world’s largest fuel cell electric trucks with a rated capacity of 140 tonnes to transport zinc ores and refined product between the port and the refinery outside of Townsville.

Image: An artist’s impression of a Hyzon Motors fuel cell truck in road train configuration. Image: Hyzon Motors.

Read the Market and Technology Report to learn about the project design and plans 


New to the Knowledge Bank

Electric Vehicles

  • ANU and ActewAGL’s technical report analyses FCAS capabilities of a Vehicle-to-Grid capable EV charger. The tests were undertaken as part of the Realising Electric Vehicle-to-Grid Services (REVS) project in the DERlab at ANU. Read ANU and ActewAGL's report here.
  • Chargefox has published its second Report providing insights on outcomes and challenges faced during the installation of 16 EV charging sites in metropolitan locations. Read Chargefox's report here.
  • Ampol has published its second Report providing an overview of the lessons learnt to date on the deployment of EV charging equipment in the forecourts of public fuel stations. Read Ampol's report here.

Hydrogen R&D

  • Monash University has published the Final Report for its Low-Cost, Robust, High-Activity Water Splitting Electrodes project. The Project explored the use of renewable-powered electrolysis of water to produce high-energy-density hydrogen fuel. Read Monash University's Final Report here.
  • Macquarie University has also produced the Final Report for their Biological Hydrogen Production project. The Project used bacteria in a fermentation process to convert sugars efficiently and rapidly from various renewable sources into hydrogen gas. Read Macquarie University's Final Report here.

Hydrogen Feasibility Studies

  • Rio Tinto’s feasibility study concludes that replacing natural gas with renewable hydrogen has major decarbonisation potential for alumina calcination which is an emissions intensive process. Read Rio Tinto’s feasibility study here.
  • Stanwell’s feasibility study explores the technical and commercial viability of exporting renewable hydrogen from Gladstone, Queensland, to Japan. The project sets out a clear Front End Engineering and Design (FEED) pathway for proposed hydrogen exports from the Gladstone Port. Read Stanwell’s feasibility study here.

Pumped Hydro Energy Storage

  • Genex Power’s construction report for their Kidston Pumped Hydro Energy Storage (PHES) project summarises lessons from transforming a disused gold mine in far-north Queensland into a major PHES project. Read Genex Power's report here.

Enabling Technologies

  • The Australian Institute of Refrigeration, Air Conditioning and Heating (AIRAH)’s Final Report on the Affordable Heating and Cooling Innovation Hub (iHub) project outlines the learnings from 32 sub-projects across three key workstreams. The sub-projects collectively investigated how renewable energy technology can be optimally integrated with heating, ventilation, air conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC&R) equipment in commercial buildings. Read AIRAH’s Final Report here.
  • Ground Source Systems lessons learnt report discusses their innovative demonstration project to develop a hybrid shallow geothermal heat-pump system for heating and cooling a commercial poultry breeding facility in Yanderra, NSW. Read Ground Source Systems' first Lessons Learnt Report here.

Distributed Energy Resources

  • Accenture have finalised their Energy-as-a-Service (EaaS) report. EaaS is an emerging business model that shifts the incentive of energy services from volume (of energy) to optimisation. This report explores the benefits, challenges, and opportunities for the acceleration of EaaS in Australia. Read Accenture's report here.
  • AEMO’s second Lessons Learnt report for Project EDGE (Energy Demand and Generation Exchange) provides an update on the progress, preliminary findings and lessons learnt to-date. This project aims to demonstrate an off-market, proof-of-concept Distributed Energy Resource (DER) Marketplace that efficiently operates DER to provide both wholesale and local network services within the constraints of a specific area of the power distribution grid. Read AEMO’s report here.

Visit ARENA's Knowledge Bank for more.

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Australian Government | Australian Renewable Energy Agency | ARENA

ARENA Insights shares knowledge from our open-source library of reports, studies and tools to provide guidance and learnings to benefit future renewable energy projects.

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